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欧洲议会倡导减少肉类消费和投资于无动物研究,以对抗“欧盟第二大杀手”──癌症

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原文:https://www.hsi.org/news-media/european-parliament-advocates-meat-reduction-and-investment-in-non-animal-research-to-fight-cancer-the-eus-second-biggest-killer/
注:译文谨供参考。


February 17, 2022
2022年2月17日

European Parliament advocates meat reduction and investment in non-animal research to fight cancer, the EU’s second biggest killer
欧洲议会倡导减少肉类消费和投资于无动物研究,以对抗“欧盟第二大杀手”──癌症

Humane Society International / Europe
国际人道协会欧洲分部


BRUSSELS—The European Parliament has adopted a resolution which calls for the EU Commission and Member States to help consumers eat a more healthy, plant-based diet and reduce overconsumption of meat to reduce cancer risks. It also calls for greater investment in non-animal biomedical test methods to replace obsolete animal models in cancer research. Europe accounts for a quarter of the world’s cancer cases with 1,3 million EU deaths each year.
布鲁塞尔──欧洲议会(European Parliament)通过了一项决议,要求欧盟委员会(EU Commission)和成员国帮助消费者实行更健康的植物性饮食并抑制肉类的过度消费,以降低癌症的风险。此外,还呼吁加大投资发展无动物的生物医学试验方法,用于取代癌症研究中使用的过时的动物模型。全世界四分之一的癌症病例发生在欧洲,而欧盟每年的癌症死亡人数高达130万。

The adopted resolution on Strengthening Europe in the fight against cancer—towards a comprehensive and coordinated strategy comes in advance of Cancer Prevention Action Week, and follows the EU’s launch of a 4 billion euro Beating Cancer Plan. Amongst a raft of other measures, the resolution:
在“防癌行动周”(Cancer Prevention Action Week)到来之前,欧洲议会通过了这个关于“增强欧洲对抗癌症──实现全面和协调的战略”的决议,而此前欧洲联盟(European Union)已推出了40亿欧元(总资助金额)的“战胜癌症计划”(Beating Cancer Plan)。除了提出许多措施外,该决议:

“emphasises the role of a healthy diet in preventing and limiting the incidence and the recurrence of cancer, and stresses that individual cancer risks can be reduced by an increased consumption of sustainably-produced plants and plant-based foods, such as fresh fruits and vegetables, whole grains and legumes;
“重视健康饮食在预防和抑制癌症发生及复发方面的作用,并强调通过增加食用可持续生产的植物和植物性食品,例如新鲜蔬菜和水果、全谷物和豆类等,可以降低个人的癌症风险;

emphasises the need to address the overconsumption of meat and ultra-processed products, and products high in sugars, salt and fats;
强调需要解决肉类和超加工食品以及高糖、高盐和高脂肪食品的过度消费问题;

asks the Commission and the Member States to encourage and help consumers to make informed, healthy and sustainable choices about food products by means of the adoption of a mandatory and harmonised EU front-of-pack nutritional label based on robust and independent scientific evidence;
要求欧盟委员会和成员国通过采用基于独立、可靠科学证据的强制、统一的欧盟食品包装正面的营养标签,鼓励并帮助消费者对食物产品做出知情、健康和可持续的选择;

supports fiscal measures to make fresh foods (such as fruits and vegetables, pulses, legumes and wholegrains) more affordable and accessible at national level;
支持采取财政措施,使整个国家的生鲜食品(如水果和蔬菜、豆子、豆类和全谷物等)更加经济实惠和方便易得;

calls for comprehensive nutrition public campaigns and supports nutrition counselling to be available in primary healthcare.”
呼吁开展全面的营养公共运动,并支持初级医疗保健提供营养咨询服务。”


Dr Joanna Swabe, senior director of public affairs for Humane Society International/Europe, said:
国际人道协会欧洲分部的公共事务高级总监乔安娜·施瓦布(Joanna Swabe)博士说:

“There is mounting scientific evidence that the consumption of meat and dairy products can have a detrimental impact on human health. The World Health Organisation warns that processed meats are carcinogenic, that red meat probably increases your risk of bowel cancer and that eating the equivalent of less than two slices of bacon a day increases your chance of colorectal cancer by 18%. So it is heartening to see the European Parliament acknowledge the risk factors associated with animal products, as well as the protective benefits of eating a more plant-based diet. Alongside reducing climate change emissions and sparing animals suffering on factory farms, the human health advantages of eating more plant-based foods present another compelling reason to transition Europe to a more resilient food system.”
“越来越多的科学证据表明,食用肉类和乳制品能够对人体健康产生有害影响。世界卫生组织(WHO)警告称,加工肉制品是致癌物,(食用)红肉可增加肠癌风险,每天的摄入量少于两片培根也使患结肠直肠癌的几率提高18%。因此,欧洲议会认识到与动物产品相关的风险因素以及增强植物性饮食的保护功效,这是令人振奋的事情。除了减少导致气候变化的温室气体排放和避免动物在工厂化农场里受苦受难,人类食用更多植物性食品还能带来健康益处,这也为欧洲转向更加稳健的食品体系提供了另一个强有力的理由。”

The adopted resolution also highlights the importance of non-animal research methodologies as more efficient and reliable in cancer research, and recognises the significant role of real-world data, mathematical modelling, artificial intelligence and digital tools in developing innovative and cost-efficient cancer treatments, which will reduce the use of animals in research.
通过的决议还强调癌症研究采用更高效可靠的无动物研究方法的重要性,并认可现实数据、数学建模、人工智能和数字工具在开发经济有效的创新癌症疗法时所发挥的重要作用,从而减少在研究中使用动物。

Cancer is one of the main areas of experimental animal use in Europe, using nearly one million animals in 2017 (the latest EU statistics available), with animal use increasing despite the very poor translation of animal data to human use. The largest proportion of drug failures is in cancer, where there is approximately 5% likelihood of a drug being approved following animal trials. This means that 95% of the drugs that seem to offer hope for cancer treatment when tested in animal models (mostly mice) fail to have an impact for patients. The adopted resolution:
在欧洲,癌症领域是使用实验动物的主要领域之一,2017年使用了将近100万只动物(可获得的最新欧盟统计数字);尽管动物数据很难套用到人类身上,但实验动物的使用数量在不断增加。最大部分的无效药物出现在癌症领域:在通过动物试验之后,药物只有大约5%的可能性获得审批。这意味着,在用动物模型(主要为小鼠)进行试验时,即使药物看起来有希望治疗癌症,但其中95%的药物最终对病人都没有什么效果。欧洲议会通过的决议:

“stresses the importance of investing in the development of non-animal research methodologies [to] increase efficiency in research, and reduce unnecessary and often less reliable experiments on animals;
“强调投资开发无动物研究方法的重要性,以提高研究的效率并减少不必要的和经常不太可靠的动物实验;

underlines that non-animal methods for testing the carcinogenicity of environmental chemicals, such as testing strategies focused on the underlying biological mechanisms that lead to cancer, should provide more relevant information than the animal-based methods currently in use for chemical safety assessment, thus enabling authorities to take swifter measures to limit exposure to harmful chemicals that could lead to cancer.”
着重指出:与目前评估化学品安全性的基于动物的方法相比,采用测试环境化学物致癌性的无动物方法,例如有些测试策略聚焦于导致癌症的根本生物机制,可以提供更多的有用信息,从而使机构能更快地采取措施限制接触可致癌的有害化学品。”


Helder Constantino, director of research policy for HSI’s Research & Toxicology department, added:
国际人道协会(HSI)研究和毒理学部的科研政策总监赫尔德·康斯坦丁诺(Helder Constantino)补充说:

“The EU Beating Cancer initiative offers an excellent opportunity to promote and seek additional funding for more advanced and human biology-based research approaches with the potential to overcome the limitations associated with current animal models and provide more human data to tackle the dramatic rise in cancer in Europe. HSI welcomes the Parliament’s emphasis on the importance of investing in new, non-animal research technologies, such as next-generation computing and miniature human organoids. Non-animal methods for testing the cancer-causing potential of environmental chemicals should provide more human-relevant information than the old, slow and unreliable rodent tests currently in use. This will enable authorities to take swifter measures to reduce human exposure to chemicals of concern.”
“欧盟战胜癌症计划提供绝佳机会去寻求和促成更多的资金,用于发展基于人类生物学的更先进的研究方法,有望突破受制于当前动物模型的局限并提供更多的人类数据,以有效应对欧洲癌症数量的急剧上升。国际人道协会拥护欧洲议会重视投资于新的无动物研究技术,例如新一代的计算技术和微型的人类类器官等。较之于目前使用的陈旧、迟缓且不可靠的啮齿动物试验,采用无动物方法测试环境化学物的致癌可能性,应可以提供更多与人类相关的信息。这将使得机构能更快地采取措施,以减少人体接触令人担忧的化学品。”

Although the adopted resolution is non-binding, Humane Society International urges the European Commission and Member States to take note of its crucial message, and to continue to take concerted efforts to promote the protein transition, as well as to grant additional funding for the development and use of non-animal research methods.
虽然此次通过的决议并不具有约束力,国际人道协会还是敦促欧盟委员会和成员国注意决议的重要信息,继续齐心协力促进蛋白质过渡(从动物蛋白过渡到植物蛋白),并增加资助无动物研究方法的开发和利用。


Background information
背景信息

Following the European Commission’s adoption of Europe’s Beating Cancer Plan in 2020, the European Parliament established a Special Committee on Beating Cancer (BECA) in recognition of the disproportionate impact of cancer on Europeans. The number of cancer diagnoses in Europe is projected to increase from 3.5 million to more than 4.3 million newly diagnosed cases by 2035.
2020年欧盟委员会(European Commission)通过《欧洲战胜癌症计划》(Europe's Beating Cancer Plan)之后,欧洲议会(European Parliament)认识到癌症对欧洲人的过度影响,并成立了一个战胜癌症专门委员会(BECA)。欧洲癌症确诊人数预计持续上升,每年新诊断病例将由现在的350万增加到2035年的430多万。

The WHO has classified processed meats, including ham, bacon, salami, sausages and frankfurters, as a Group 1 carcinogen (i.e. known to cause cancer). Processed meats have been linked to increased risk of colorectal cancer, with experts concluding that each 50g portion of processed meat eaten daily increases the risk of colorectal cancer by 18%. Red meat, such as beef, lamb and pork, has been classified by the WHO as a Group 2A carcinogen (i.e. probably causes cancer). Consumption of red meat was linked to colorectal cancer, as well as pancreatic and prostate cancers.
世界卫生组织(WHO)已将加工肉制品归类为1级致癌物(即已知的致癌物),包括火腿(ham)、培根(bacon)、萨拉米香肠(salami)、香肠(sausage)、法兰克福香肠(frankfurter)等。食用加工肉制品会增加结肠直肠癌风险:专家们断定,每天吃50克加工肉制品使患结肠直肠癌的风险上升18%。牛肉、羊肉和猪肉等红肉已被世卫组织归类为2A级致癌物(即很可能致癌物)。食用红肉可导致结肠直肠癌以及胰腺癌和前列腺癌。

All animal proteins stimulate the growth hormone IGF-1; the more IGF-1 present in your bloodstream, the higher the risk for cancer development. Research shows that only those following a fully plant-based, vegan diet will experience cancer protection due to decreased growth hormone and increased binding protein levels.
所有动物蛋白都刺激生长激素IGF-1的产生;体内血液中的IGF-1越多,罹患癌症的风险越高。研究表明,唯有遵循完全植物性的纯素饮食才能达到预防癌症的效果,这是由于其降低了生长激素水平并提高了结合蛋白水平。

Research shows that high-fibre diets protect against colon cancer and can even increase survival of those already diagnosed with the disease. Stomach cancer and breast cancer are less common with high-fibre diets. The best sources of fibre are minimally processed whole grains, beans, peas, lentils, vegetables, and fruits. Beta-carotene, present in dark green, yellow, and orange vegetables, also helps protect against lung cancer and may help prevent cancers of the bladder, mouth, larynx, oesophagus and breast.
研究表明高纤维饮食预防结肠癌,甚至能够提高结肠癌患者的生存率。采用高纤维饮食没那么容易得胃癌和乳腺癌。最好的纤维来源是最少加工的全谷物、豆类、豌豆、小扁豆、蔬菜和水果。深绿色、黄色和橙色蔬菜含有的β-胡萝卜素也有助于预防肺癌,还可以预防膀胱癌、口腔癌、喉癌、食道癌和乳腺癌。

In October 2020, the European Commission’s Joint Research Centre (JRC) produced a freely available knowledge base of over 900 non-animal models for breast cancer research. According to the JRC, while “breast cancer is now estimated to be the most frequently occurring cancer, accounting for 13.3% of all new cancer diagnoses during 2020 in EU-27 countries”, disseminating human-biology based methods is key to develop new treatments because “current breast cancer research is too reliant on animal models, mostly using rodents. But rodents provide a poor model for human diseases.”
2020年10月,欧盟委员会的联合研究中心(JRC)制作了一个可以免费使用的知识库,包含用于乳腺癌研究的900多个非动物模型。根据联合研究中心的报告,“据估计乳腺癌现在是最常见的癌症,2020年欧盟27个成员国总共有13.3%的新确诊癌症病例为乳腺癌”,推广基于人类生物学的方法是开发新疗法的关键,因为“目前的乳腺癌研究过于依赖动物模型,主要使用啮齿动物,而研究人类疾病使用啮齿动物属于低劣模型。”

According to a scientific expert group of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, “It is now well recognized by the scientific and regulatory community that the conventional approach to carcinogenicity testing, particularly the use of the rodent cancer bioassay has many limitations in terms of reliability and relevance. It is not considered sufficiently fit for the purpose of human health hazard assessment”.
经济合作与发展组织(OECD)的科学专家组表示:“现在科学界和监管界普遍承认,使用致癌性试验的传统方法,特别是啮齿动物的癌症生物测定法,在可靠性和相关性方面具有诸多的局限性,不足以胜任人类健康危害评估之目的。”

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