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“碳足迹”踏上了COP26峰会菜单,为啥牛肉和培根还没给撤下来?

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原文:https://vegnews.com/2021/11/cop26-carbon-footprints-beef-bacon
注:译文谨供参考。


COP26 Puts Carbon Footprints on Event Menus. Why Are Beef and Bacon Still Served?
“碳足迹”踏上了COP26峰会菜单,为啥牛肉和培根还没给撤下来?


World leaders at COP26 were presented with a “plant-forward” menu labeled with carbon footprints to bring awareness to how different foods impact the environment. With their damage on display, beef and bacon were still at the top of the menu.
标有碳足迹(carbon footprint)的“植物导向”菜单已在出席COP26峰会的各国领导人面前公开亮相,让人们进一步了解不同食物如何影响环境。牛肉和培根还摆在菜单的前面位置,尽管它们的破坏性已被昭示天下。

by Anna Starostinetskaya
作者:Anna Starostinetskaya

November 2, 2021
2021年11月2日


This week, world leaders gathered at the 2021 United Nations Climate Change Conference (COP26) at the Scottish Event Campus (SEC) in Glasgow to discuss strategies for mitigating climate change. The food menus they encountered were all labeled with the carbon footprint created by every dish. Animal agriculture contributes to 14.5 percent to 18 percent of all anthropogenic greenhouse gases and the COP26 took a “plant-forward” approach to constructing its food strategy. Organizers aimed to reduce the event’s carbon footprint by sourcing 95 percent of the foods served from the United Kingdom and 80 percent locally from Scotland.
世界各国领导人于本周云集格拉斯哥(Glasgow)的苏格兰活动园(SEC),参加在这里举行的2021年联合国气候变化大会(COP26),共同探讨减缓气候变化的战略。在款待他们的饮食菜单上,都标明了生产制作每道菜所造成的碳足迹。动物农业产生了全球14.5%到18%的人为温室气体,而COP26气候峰会采用“植物导向”(plant-forward)方法构建其食品战略。为了减少本次大会活动的碳足迹,主办方专门从英国采购了95%的食品,其中苏格兰本地为大会供应80%的食品。

“We have worked hard to create low-carbon menus that are accessible to all. We hope our sustainable food strategy will shape menus of the future as we all work to protect our planet,” SEC Food Business Director Kevin Watson said in a statement. “As well as providing great-tasting and nutritious food, our menus are focused on local and seasonal sourcing, with a plant-forward approach. We have been delighted to showcase and work with so many local Scottish suppliers and our teams are looking forward to supporting the event.”
“我们着力打造了面向大众的低碳菜单(low-carbon menus)。我们希望我们的可持续食品战略可以塑造未来的菜单,因为我们所有人都在努力保护我们的地球,”SEC食品业务总监凯文·沃森(Kevin Watson)在一份声明中表示。“除了提供美味营养的食品外,我们的菜单采用植物导向的方法,专注于本地和当季采购。我们很高兴与那么多的苏格兰本地供应商进行合作和示范,我们的团队也期待着为大会提供餐饮保障。”

Delegates have a selection of dishes to choose from at COP26, ranging from options that impact the climate minimally (such as the plant-based Candied Scottish Beetroot & Broccoli Salad which emits 0.2 kg of CO2 equivalent) to those with massive impact (such as the Scottish Beef Burger, which contributes approximately the same amount of CO2 equivalent emissions at 3.9 kg as driving a car for 10 miles).
参加COP26峰会的代表们可以享用一系列精挑细选的菜肴──范围从影响气候最小的素食(例如素菜“苏格兰甜菜根西兰花糖渍沙拉”,排放的二氧化碳当量仅为0.2公斤)到严重影响气候的肉食(例如“苏格兰牛肉汉堡”,产生的二氧化碳当量高达3.9公斤,大约相当于汽车行驶10英里的温室气体排放量)。

Some of the worst climate offenders at COP26 are the Scottish Buffalo Mozzarella Pizza (2.1 kg of CO2 equivalent), Smoked Chicken Pizza (1.7 kg CO2 equivalent), and Buttermilk Grilled Chicken Burger (1.1 kg CO2 equivalent). On the other end of the climate spectrum, plant-based options such as Herbalism Herb Burger, Organic Kale & Seasonal Vegetable Pasta, and Vegetarian Sausage Roll all clock in at 0.6 kg, 0.3 kg, and 0.1 kg of CO2 equivalent, respectively.
在COP26峰会现身的一些最坏的“气候罪犯”包括:苏格兰水牛奶酪披萨(2.1公斤二氧化碳当量)、熏鸡披萨(1.7公斤二氧化碳当量)和酪乳烤鸡汉堡(1.1公斤二氧化碳当量)。另一方面来看,植物性食品对环境气候的影响较小,例如药草汉堡、有机羽衣甘蓝时蔬意面和素香肠卷分别只产生0.6公斤、0.3公斤和0.1公斤的二氧化碳当量。

Overall, more than half (58 percent) of the COP26’s “plant-forward” menu contains animal products.
总的来看,超过一半(58%)的COP26峰会“植物导向”菜单均包含动物制品。


The beef with COP26
牛肉和COP26峰会

Scheduled to run until November 12, COP26 is seen by many activists as the final chance for world leaders to commit to environmental policies that will steer the planet away from the worst climate catastrophes. Given the devastating impact of animal agriculture on the environment, the appearance of meat and dairy on COP26 menus is concerning.
COP26峰会将持续举行到11月12日,本次气候大会也被许多活动人士视为最后一次机会:让全世界领导人采纳使地球避开最惨烈气候灾难的环境政策。考虑到动物农业对环境的毁灭性影响,COP26峰会菜单出现肉类和乳制品引起了人们的担忧。

Globally, more than 88 billion animals are raised and slaughtered for food every year. While the industry uses 83 percent of the world’s farmland, it only provides 37 percent of the world’s protein and accounts for only 18 percent of calories. Prior to COP26, the United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) published its sixth report which “unequivocally” held human activity responsible for climate change, a conclusion that has been supported by other pertinent research. According to a comprehensive Oxford University study released in 2018, the meat and dairy industries are responsible for 60 percent of global greenhouse gas emissions, and if individuals removed animal products from their diets, they would reduce their carbon footprint by 73 percent.
全球每年饲养和屠宰的食用动物高达880亿多只。虽然这个行当占用了全世界83%的农田,却只能提供全世界37%的蛋白质和18%的食物热量。在COP26峰会召开之前,联合国政府间气候变化专门委员会(IPCC)发布了其第六次报告,“毫不含糊”地断定人类活动造成气候变化──这一结论已经得到其他相关研究的证实。根据2018年发表的一项全面的牛津大学研究结果,肉类和乳制品行业导致了全球60%的温室气体排放量;而个人饮食只要排除动物制品,就可以减少本人73%的碳足迹。

Despite these findings, climate summits of the past have largely ignored animal agriculture as a topic, which activists, including celebrities Billie Eilish, Moby, and Joaquin Phoenix, hope to change at COP26.
尽管有了这些研究结果,但以往的气候峰会大都忽略了动物农业这一议题;因此,包括比莉·艾利什(Billie Eilish)、莫比(Moby)和华金·菲尼克斯(Joaquin Phoenix)等名人在内的活动人士都希望COP26峰会能够改变这种现状。


Addressing the problem of animal agriculture
解决动物农业的问题

At the onset of the summit—which coincided with World Vegan Day celebrations—Spanish vegan brand Huera and Dutch brand The Vegetarian Butcher both launched campaigns to emphasize the importance of world leaders including meat reduction strategies in their countries climate action plans.
本次峰会的召开恰逢人们庆祝世界纯素食日(World Vegan Day),此前西班牙纯素品牌Huera和荷兰植物肉品牌The Vegetarian Butcher(植卓肉匠)都发起了运动,着重强调全世界领导人将削减肉类战略纳入本国气候行动计划的重要性。

“The numbers don’t lie. A transition to diets that incorporate more plant-based food is a vital part of the solution to the climate crisis,” The Vegetarian Butcher CEO Hugo Verkuil said in a statement. “We can all do our bit as individuals to switch from animal meat to plant-based protein, but the onus can’t just be on us. We need to see increased collaboration between NGOs, policymakers, and businesses for decisive progress to be made in building a more sustainable food system.”
“数字不会撒谎。为了解决气候危机,过渡到包含更多植物性食品的饮食方式是至关重要的,”植卓肉匠首席执行官Hugo Verkuil在一份声明中表示。“我们所有人都可以尽自己的一份力量,在饮食中将动物肉类改为植物蛋白食品,但是解决问题的责任不能只由我们来承担。在建设一个更加可持续发展的食品体系过程中,我们需要看到非政府组织、决策者和企业之间增加合作才能取得重大进步。”

In light of this growing body of research, activists from around the world are calling on world leaders to place greater emphasis on the role of animal agriculture in the climate crisis through campaigns such as Humane Society International’s #CowIntheRoom and Plant Based Treaty (which was co-founded by vegan activist Anita Krajnc). Both campaigns demand that world leaders redirect resources from animal agriculture to support plant-based food systems.
由于类似的研究结果越来越多,世界各地的活动人士正在通过开展各项运动,例如国际人道协会(HSI)的#CowIntheRoom(“屋内奶牛”)以及由纯素活动家Anita Krajnc等人共同创立的Plant Based Treaty(“植物性条约”),呼吁全世界领导人更加注意动物农业在气候危机中扮演的角色。上述两项运动都要求各国领导人将资源撤离动物农业,改用于支持发展植物性食品体系。


Biden pledges to slash methane
拜登承诺大幅减少甲烷排放

Thus far, COP26 has resulted in some commitments from world leaders, including from President of the United States Joe Biden. In partnership with the EU, the US launched the Global Methane Pledge (which already has 100 countries onboard) to slash methane emissions by 30 percent by 2030. Methane is 80 times more potent than carbon dioxide and its reduction is critical to preventing climate catastrophe.
到目前为止,COP26峰会已经取得了一些国家领导人的承诺,其中包括美国总统乔·拜登(Joe Biden)。美国与欧盟联合推出了“全球甲烷承诺”(Global Methane Pledge)(已获得100多个国家的支持),到2030年大幅减少甲烷排放量30%。(在温室效应方面,)甲烷的危害性比二氧化碳高出80倍,因此削减甲烷排放对于防止气候灾难很重要。

In speaking about the pledge, Biden focused on plugging leaks in gas pipelines, which is one-way methane enters the atmosphere. “One of the most important things we can do in this decisive decade to keep 1.5 degrees in reach is reduce our methane emissions as quickly as possible,” Biden said in a recorded video from COP26, explaining that two new rules related to preventing methane leaks will be introduced through the Environmental Protection Agency and the Department of Transportation.
在谈到该项承诺时,拜登将重点放在堵塞输气管道的泄漏;这是甲烷进入大气层的一条途径。“为了将全球温升幅度控制在1.5摄氏度以内,在这个决定性的十年里,我们所能做的最重要事情之一就是尽快减少我们的甲烷排放,”拜登在COP26峰会录制的视频中说道,并介绍将通过美国环保局(EPA)和交通部(DOT),推行两条有关防止甲烷泄漏的新法规。

Animal agriculture is responsible for approximately 30 percent of the world’s methane emissions and Biden addressed this culprit briefly. “We’re also launching a new initiative to work with our farmers and our ranchers to introduce climate-smart agricultural practices and reduce methane on farms which is a significant source, as well,” Biden said.
动物农业造成了全球大约30%的甲烷排放量,而拜登只是简略地提到了这个罪魁祸首。他说:“我们还将推出一项新计划,与国内的农场主和牧场主开展合作,推广气候智慧型农业并减少农场的甲烷──这也是甲烷的一大来源。”

When it comes to the Biden administration specifically, vegan group ProVeg International launched a campaign in April to demand that the US include plant-based food system targets in all its domestic infrastructure, climate, and agricultural policy proposals in order to set a global example and to include these targets in all Paris and COP26 discussions, ultimately seeking a 50-percent reduction in animal production by 2040.
专门针对拜登政府,纯素组织ProVeg International于今年四月发起了一场运动,要求美国将植物性食品体系目标纳入其所有的国内基础设施、气候和农业政策提案,以便树立一个全球榜样,并将这类目标加入到所有《巴黎协定》和COP26峰会的讨论,以最终达成动物生产到2040年缩减50%的愿望。

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